Tuesday, August 30, 2016

What Causes Blood Sugar to Rise

The key elemnts that cause blood sugar to rise include:

  • Food
  • Drugs
  • Lifestyle

The following is a more detailed breakdown of these key elements that can cause your blood sugar to rise. This is important to understand because it's not just the food that may cause your blood sugar to rise.

By understanding this, you won't become frustrated when you eat properly and notice that your blood sugar is not coming down. This is why it's so important to maintain a daily journal of your meals, exercise regimen, activities, events, stress level, etc.

Alcohol
Normally, the liver releases glucose to maintain blood sugar levels. But when alcohol is consumed, the liver is busy breaking the alcohol down, and it reduces its output of glucose into the bloodstream.

This can lead to a drop in blood sugar levels if the alcohol was consumed on an empty stomach.

However, alcoholic drinks with carbohydrate-rich mixers (e.g., orange juice) can also raise blood sugar because they have plenty of carbs. But your levels may drop for as long as 12 hours after drinking.

Allergies
Some people with allergies have been known to have higher glucose levels, primarily due to the stress hormone cortisol and the specific medications.

Artifical Sweeteners
An interesting new Israeli study suggests that artificial sweeteners can raise blood sugar levels! In a follow-up study of 400 people, the research team found that long-term users of artificial sweeteners were more likely to have higher fasting blood sugar levels, reported by HealthDay.

Birth Control Pills
Birth control pills with estrogen can affect the way your body handles insulin and cause your blood sugar levels to rise.

Caffeine
Many studies have suggested that caffeine in coffee increases insulin resistance and stimulates the release of adrenaline.

The same goes for black tea, green tea, and energy drinks. But, since each person with diabetes reacts to foods and drinks differently, it's best to keep track of your own blood glucose readings.

Ref: http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/pdfplus/10.1089/jcr.2010.0007

Carbohydrates
Of course, everyone is aware that carbohydrates raise your blood sugar. However, you should still eat carbohydrates, especially the high quality carbohydrates such as vegetables and some fruits.

It isn't just the carbs in rice, bread, pasta, etc. that cause your blood sugar to rise. It's the high amount of fat in foods such as sesame beef or sweet and sour chicken, which can make your blood sugar stay up longer. The same is true for pizza, French fries, and other foods that have a lot of carbs and fat. Check your blood sugar about 2 hours after you eat to know how a food affects you.

Dawn Phenomenon
The “Dawn Phenomenon” raises your blood sugar due to the body’s daily production of hormones around 4:00-5:00 AM. During this time, the body makes less insulin and produces more glucagon, which raises blood glucose.

Drugs
Corticosteroids, such as prednisone, which are used to control asthma, arthritis, MS, and other health conditions, can raise blood sugar levels. In fact, steroids may even trigger diabetes in some people. !

In addition, common drugs such as statins to lower cholesterol levels, and diuretics to lower blood pressure, can raise blood sugar levels. Again, statins have been shown to trigger diabetes in some people!

Some antidepressants can also raise blood sugar.

Decongestants that have pseudoephedrine or phenylephrine can raise blood sugar. Cold medicines also sometimes have a little sugar or alcohol in them, so look for products that don't have those ingredients.

Dehydration
Being dehydrated may raise your blood sugar, especially if you're not eating foods that contain water, e.g. vegetables, while eating foods that dehydrate you, e.g. coffee, soda, fried foods, processed meats, alcohol, soy sauce, popcorn, sugary drinks.

Emotions
Anger, anxiety, fear, etc. cause our bodies to produce hormones such as cortisol that can raise blood glucose even if we haven’t eaten.  These hormones are known as the “fight or flight” hormones.

Modern day stresses can be anything from starting a new job to fighting an illness to getting ready for that big birthday party. These hormones release our body’s emergency stores of sugar into the bloodstream for use as energy.  Sometimes the influx of sugar is too much for the body to use when someone has diabetes and it can cause blood sugars to rise too high.

Exercise
High-intensity and moderate exercise such as sprinting or weight lifting, can sometimes raise blood glucose. This stems from the adrenaline response, which tells the body to release stored glucose. But this is not a reason to avoid high intensity exercise – studies show it can improve blood glucose for one to three days post-exercise!

Female Hormones 
When a woman's hormones change, so does her blood sugar. Keep a monthly record of your levels to get a better idea of how your menstrual cycle affects you. Hormone changes during menopause may make blood sugar even harder to control.

Heat
Heat makes your blood sugar harder to control. You should test it often and drink plenty of water to avoid dehydration. High temperatures can affect your medications, glucose meter, and test strips, too. Don't leave them in a hot car.

Illness
When you're sick, your body produces stress-related hormones that help your body fight the illness, but they can also raise your blood sugar level.

Whether it’s a cold, flu, or even a urinary tract infection, your immune system releases germ-fighting chemicals that can raise your blood sugar. Illness can cause the body to release epinephrine (adrenaline), glucagon, growth hormone, and cortisol. As a result, more glucose is released from the liver (glucagon, adrenaline) and the body can become less sensitive to insulin (growth hormone, cortisol).

Illness also causes the liver to increase glucose production to provide more energy. At the same time, stress hormones are released that make cells more insulin resistant. The net result is that blood sugar can rise dramatically when you’re ill.

Meals: Frequency, Timing
Eating less than 3 meals a day leads to larger meals which leads to higher blood glucose levels. Eating 4 to 6 smaller meals spaced out across the day and at the same time every day will help keep your blood glucose levels more consistent.

Meals: Order In Which Food Is Eaten 
A small new study from researchers at Weill Cornell Medical College suggests that the order in which diabetics eat their food may cause blood glucose to rise.

The researchers found that, when carbohydrates were eaten last, the participants’ blood sugar levels were significantly lower at the 30-, 60-, and 120-minute after-meal checks (29%, 37%, and 17%, respectively), and insulin levels were substantially lower as well, compared to when the carbohydrates were eaten first.

However, the study investigators agreed that they need to do follow-up work and conduct more studies.

Meals: Proportion Sizes
If meals are not balanced and contain too many carbs or too little fat or protein, this will raise your blood sugar.

Too much food in proportion to your diabetes medications — especially insulin — may cause your blood sugar level to climb too high (hyperglycemia).

If possible, it is also important to eat about the same amount of carbohydrates at each meal or snack to keep your blood glucose levels within target range, or to have your medication match your carbohydrate intake.

Menstruation and Menopause
Many women report having higher blood sugar levels a few days prior to their period starting, but some women notice a sharp drop in sugar levels. To figure out how you respond, your best bet is to test your blood glucose often during this time of month.

Changes in hormone levels the week before and during menstruation can result in significant fluctuations in blood sugar levels. And in the few years before and during menopause, hormone changes may result in unpredictable variations in blood sugar levels that complicate diabetes management.

Sleep
Many studies have found that not getting enough sleep leads to high glucose levels and poor diabetes control, insulin resistance, weight gain, and increased food intake.

A Dutch study of patients with type 1 diabetes found that when they got just four hours of sleep a night, their insulin sensitivity dropped 20 percent compared to when they got a full night’s sleep, according to EverydayHealth.com.

Not getting enough sleep is a form of chronic stress on the body, and any time you have added stress, you're going to have higher blood sugar levels.

A 2006 study in the Archives of Internal Medicine found that those who report poor sleep quality have higher A1Cs. This finding is of concern because of the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in people with diabetes.

Caution: Blood sugar can dip dangerously low during sleep for some people with diabetes, especially if they take insulin. It's best to check your levels at bedtime and when you wake up.

Sugar-Free Foods
Many sugar-free foods will raise your blood sugar levels, because they can still have plenty of carbs from starches. Check the total carbohydrates on the Nutrition Facts label. You should also pay attention to sugar alcohols such as sorbitol and xylitol. They add sweetness with fewer carbs than sugar (sucrose), but they may still have enough to raise your sugar levels.

Smoking
Some studies suggest that smoking can increase insulin resistance, and people with diabetes who smoke are more likely than non-smokers to have trouble with insulin dosing and managing their diabetes.

A 2011 study from California State Polytechnic University found that the more nicotine samples of human blood were exposed to, the higher the A1C level (a measure of blood sugar control).

Ref: CDC http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/campaign/tips/diseases/diabetes.html
Ref: American Society for Clinical Nutrition http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/87/4/801.long

Stress
In people with diabetes, stress can alter blood glucose levels in two ways:

1. People under stress may not take good care of themselves. They may drink more alcohol or exercise less. They may forget, or not have time, to check their glucose levels or plan good meals.

2. Stress hormones such as cortisol can raise blood glucose levels directly. Stress can cause the body to release epinephrine (adrenaline), glucagon, growth hormone, and cortisol.

As a result, more glucose is released from the liver (glucagon, adrenaline) and the body can become less sensitive to insulin (growth hormone, cortisol).

Job Stress: Being overwhelmed, overworked or unhappy at work takes a toll. When you're under stress, your body releases hormones that can make your blood sugar rise. Learn to relax with deep breathing and exercise. Also, try to change the things that are stressing you out, if that's possible.

Stress Monitoring Tip: It's easy to find out whether mental stress affects your glucose levels. Before checking your glucose levels, write down a number rating your mental stress level on a scale of 1 to 10. Then write down your glucose level next to it. After a week or two, look for a pattern. Drawing a graph may help you see trends better. Do high stress levels often occur with high glucose levels, and low stress levels with low glucose levels? If so, stress may affect your glucose control.

Thoughts
Believe it or not, negative thoughts, a negative talk-track of self-blame, self-hate, anger, etc. trigger the release of cortisol and other hormones that can raise your blood sugar. Use positive affirmations, mantras, etc. and replace bad thoughts with good ones.

Each time you notice a bad thought, purposefully think of something that makes you happy or proud. Or memorize a poem, prayer, or quote and use it to replace a bad thought.

Whatever method you choose to relax, practice it. Just as it takes weeks or months of practice to learn a new sport, it takes practice to learn how to relax.

Why Blood Glucose Levels Change During The Day

Your blood glucose levels vary (up or down) due to a number of factors such as those listed below:

1. Eating food. As the carbs in food break down, glucose is released into the bloodstream ready to be absorbed by cells. Increased glucose in the bloodstream = higher blood sugar level.

2. Exercise. Exercise provides many benefits to your body, including burning excess sugar and reducing insulin resistance (by making cells more receptive to insulin, so rather than requiring more insulin to facilitate glucose uptake, the insulin you already have becomes a bit more effective). However the effect on blood sugar depends on the type of exercise, the duration of exercise, glucose and insulin levels before you start exercising.
During long, intense workouts the body may release adrenaline which counteracts the efforts of insulin. The normal process for blood sugar would be to be absorbed by cells (via insulin) for utilization or storage. Adrenaline causes the glucose to be redirected to where it is required for use immediately rather than for storage. 

3. Your physiology. The fitter you are the better. More specifically, if you have a greater muscle to fat ratio, you will burn energy at a faster rate and therefore be more effective at reducing your blood glucose level. Also, muscles do not rely on insulin to absorb/use blood glucose - same goes for the brain.

4. Emotions. Stress increases your blood glucose level. It also causes some people to forget to take their medication, turn to comfort foods, overeat and therefore introduce a higher than normal amount of glucose in the blood.

5. Sleeping. People often talk about the "dawn phenomenon" with regard to diabetes, where your blood sugar level spikes in the mornings as a result of the body releasing hormones which increase insulin resistance. However, another explanation could be a slow metabolism of dinner from the night before. Some research also suggests that not getting enough sleep causes the liver to produce/release more glucose, hence increasing your blood sugar levels.

6. Medications. Obviously, the medication you take regulates your blood sugar level and therefore your readings during the day, depending on when you took the medication. But, the medications don't get rid of your diabetes!

Note: Read Chapter 11 of Death to Diabetes for more information.


Friday, August 26, 2016

Meal Delivery Plans eDiets Diet-to-Go Nutrisystem BistroMD

Why Meal Delivery Diet Plans?

Because of work schedules, family life, travel, and other lifestyle issues, some of us (including diabetics) rely on junk food and fast food restaurants because of time and convenience.

Because of our busy lives, we don't have the time to prepare healthy meals every day.

However, we want to eat healthy -- if only there was a way to eat healthy but not have to spend a lot of time in the kitchen or shopping in the crowded grocery stores.

And, there are some of us who just can't cook!

But the good news is that there are ways to eat healthy, and not spend a lot of time in the kitchen or in the grocery store.

One of the most effective and cost-effective ways is to have your meals prepared and delivered to your home. Online meal delivery programs have grown and come a long way; and, provide a lot more options for all of us -- especially for those of us who are very busy, but still need to lose some weight or get our diabetes under control.

In addition, these types of online meal delivery programs prevent us from giving in to the fast foods and junk food.

By the way, there is another reason why we choose fast foods -- the perceived cheaper cost. It appears on the surface that fast food is a lot cheaper that healthy foods such as extra virgin olive oil and wild salmon.

However, fast food is actually NOT cheaper, when you take into account the detrimental health impact of eating too much fast food.

Once we realize that eating healthy is not as expensive as eating fast food and junk food, then, the challenge becomes finding a service that will address the areas of time and convenience -- and, not be more expensive than preparing healthy meals every day.

That service is called Meal Delivery Diet Plan or Meal Plan Delivery.

For more information about the different types of plans refer to the following website:

http://www.dietdeliveryreviews.com/

Can't Afford Meal Delivery?

If you can't afford meal delivery, Mr. McCulley has developed several meal planning tools to help you with meal planning.

FYI: Mr. McCulley admits that it was very intimidating when he realized everything that he would have to do to manage his diabetes and plan his meals. So, he developed acookbook and a set of meal planning diagrams and charts  that would make it easier for diabetics to perform proper meal planning.

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Death to Obesity Weight Loss Ebook

Proper weight loss, in the context of health or physical fitness, is a reduction of your total body weight, due to a loss of fluid and body fat but not the loss of lean muscle tissue. This is key!

Many weight loss programs produce weight loss, but they lose the lean muscle tissue that your body needs to burn the fat! That’s why a lot of people on weight loss program look like “death warmed over”. They have lost lean muscle tissue, which also affects your body composition.

Weight gain is due to 3 reasons for most people:
1. Biochemical and hormonal imbalances
2. Poor nutrition and lifestyle choices that lead to low physical activity
3. Emotional issues that trigger poor eating habits

Consequently, the strategy to overcome weight gain and achieve weight loss requires the following:
1. Rebalance biochemically and hormonally.
2. Proper nutrition and lifestyle choices that lead to increased physical activity
3. Addressing the emotional issues that trigger poor eating habits.
Of course, there are other reasons such as environment, age, culture, and overall health, but these three fuel the obesity epidemic more than any other factor.

In order to increase your probability of success, you must prepare yourself physically, emotionally, and spiritually to embrace making the necessary lifestyle changes to improve your health. You must make yourself a priority and set aside the time to improve your health if you really want to lose weight.

You must establish and implement goals to increase the frequency of your (super) meals and snacks to enable proper blood glucose stabilization. You should also establish goals to increase the frequency of your exercise, cleansing/detox, and other key activities. This will prevent the blood glucose highs and lows that many people experience, and help to reduce the excess insulin production, which fuels Type 2 diabetes and obesity.

This weight loss program will also help you to reduce the belly fat, lower your blood pressure, lower your blood glucose level, and lower your cholesterol.
Implementing the Death to Obesity® Weight Loss Program includes the following activities:
• Meal Planning
• Blood Glucose Testing/Analysis (for Type 2 diabetics only)
• Exercise
• Cleansing/Detox
• Nutritional Supplementation
• Support and Relaxation Sleep
• Health Coaching & Planning
• Doctor Visits, Medical Blood Tests & Exams
• Drug Weaning

You should implement one new activity at the start of a new week until you have implemented all the activities into your daily life and lifestyle.  If one-week increments are too much for you, then, slow down and use two-week or 1-month increments.

Ebook Content & Description:
 
Explains how to lose weight and reduce the belly fat -- primarily for non-diabetics, but also for Type 2 diabetics. Defines the key steps to burn the fat and achieve permanent weight loss.Provides specific steps to reduce that hard-to-get-rid-of belly fat. Also, identifies the top 10 weight-loss foods and how they help to reduce weight and belly fat. Discusses the emotional and motivational factors for successful weight loss, including how to fuel motivation, discipline, and will power to achieve your weight loss goals.
Key topics include: The Weight Loss 10 Steps Program; The 10 Myths about Weight Loss, Obesity Pathophysiology, Leptin/Insulin Resistance, Lipolysis: Fat Burning, Calorie-Planning, The Role of Hormones in Losing Weight, Weight Loss Timeline, Optional Weight Loss Strategies, Exercise Regimen for Losing Weight, Cleanse/Detox Guidelines, Tips for a Better Fast, The Most Important Motivator, Limitations of Drugs/Medications, Meal Planning Tips, How to Lose That Belly Fat, BMI Chart, etc.

Note: For more information, get the Weight Loss ebook PDF at this link:
http://www.shop.deathtodiabetes.com/product.sc?categoryId=2&productId=74

Death to Obesity Weight Loss Program
 
Are you tired of being fat? 
Are you tired of being tired? Are you tired of all the anxiety, despair, and hopelessness?

Would you like to enjoy life the way it was before you gained all the weight?

Then, start your journey "from fatness to thinness" today -- and get theDeath to Obesity Weight Loss ebook.
CLICK HERE TO BEGIN LOSING WEIGHT TODAY!

Size of Ebook:
 200+ pages

Document Format: PDF (Adobe Acrobat)

Retail Price: $19.95

Delivery: The ebook will be delivered within 1 hour to you via email, so please ensure your email address is correct.
 

Contact Information: Email: admin(at)deathtodiabetes(dot)com
Toll-free Phone: 800-813-1927 

Wednesday, August 24, 2016

Insulin Resistance, Inflammation, Oxidation and Glycation

There are many biological, biochemical and hormonal processes that fuel diseases such as Type 2 diabetes, heart disease, obesity, arthritis, Alzheimer's and cancer.
Five of the key processes that fuel these diseases are:
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Inflammation
  • Oxidation
  • Glycation
  • Toxicity

Insulin Resistance (IR)

Insulin resistance is a physiological condition in which cells fail to respond to the hormone insulin. The pancreas produces insulin, but the cells in the body become resistant to insulin and are unable to use it as effectively, leading to hyperglycemia.
Subsequently, the pancreas increases its production of insulin, further contributing to hyperinsulinemia. This often remains undetected and can lead to the development of Type 2 diabetes.
One of insulin's functions is to regulate delivery of glucose into cells to provide them with energy. Insulin resistant cells cannot take in glucose, amino acids and fatty acids. Thus, glucose, fatty acids and amino acids 'leak' out of the cells.
A decrease in insulin/glucagon ratio inhibits glycolysis which in turn decreases energy production. The resulting increase in blood glucose may raise levels outside the normal range and cause adverse health effects, depending on dietary conditions.
As depicted in the diagram below, certain cell types such as fat and muscle cells require insulin to absorb glucose from the bloodstream. When these cells fail to respond adequately to circulating insulin, blood glucose levels rise.
The liver helps regulate glucose levels by reducing its secretion of glucose in the presence of insulin. This normal reduction in the liver’s glucose production may not occur in people with insulin resistance.
Insulin resistance in fat and muscle cells reduces glucose uptake (and also local storage of glucose as glycogen and triglycerides, respectively), whereas insulin resistance in liver cells results in reduced glycogen synthesis and storage and also a failure to suppress glucose production and release into the blood. 
Elevated blood fatty-acid concentrations, reduced muscle glucose uptake, and increased liver glucose production all contribute to elevated blood glucose levels. High levels of insulin and glucose due to insulin resistance are a major component of the Metabolic Syndrome. 

Inflammation

Inflammation is part of the complex biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. In other words, inflammation is the body’s attempt to heal itself.
Inflammation is a protective immune response that involves macrophages, white blood cells and other immune cells. These cells work together to eliminate the initial cause of cell damage/injury, clear out necrotic cells and tissues damaged from the original injury, and to initiate cell/tissue repair.
The classical signs of acute inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function until the cells/tissues are repaired.
Inflammation is tightly regulated by the body. Too little inflammation could lead to progressive tissue destruction by the harmful stimulus (e.g. bacteria) and compromise the survival of the organism. In contrast, chronic inflammation may lead to a host of diseases, such as atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, periodontitis, and even cancer.
Inflammation can be classified as either acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is the initial response of the body to harmful stimuli and is achieved by the increased movement of plasma and leukocytes (especially granulocytes) from the blood into the injured tissues.
A series of biochemical events occur, involving the local vascular system, the immune system, and various cells within the injured tissue.
As depicted in the diagram above, prolonged inflammation, known as chronic inflammation, leads to a progressive shift in the type of cells present at the site of inflammation and is characterized by simultaneous destruction and healing of the tissue from the inflammatory process.
Over time, this type of prolonged inflammation can lead to diseases such as heart disease, Type 2 diabetic complications, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. 

Oxidation

Oxidation is a process where there is the loss of at least one electron when two or more atoms or molecular compounds interact. An apple turning brown or a nail rusting are examples of oxidation.
If you recall what you learned in your high school chemistry class, most molecules are stable when they have 2 electrons in the outer “shell” or orbit. But, when one of the electrons is removed, the molecule becomes unstable. This is known as a "free radical".
Free radicals are atoms or molecules which have at least one unpaired valence electron in the outer orbital.
Free Radical Molecule: Cause of Oxidation
In our modern world, our bodies are exposed to elevated levels of free radicals from external sources such as exposure to X-rays, ozone, cigarette smoking, air pollutants, and industrial chemicals.
The mitochondria in our cells are the main source of free radicals under normal conditions. Free radicals can react with any biological molecule (proteins, lipids, sugars, DNA) altering its structure and often its function. Therefore living organisms are provided with a rich system of antioxidant defenses whose main purpose is to prevent the free radicals attack to other molecules.
The DNA in the nucleus of our cells is one of the major targets of oxidation and free radicals. Free radicals damage our DNA, which may lead to a cell mutation and trigger the development of diseases such as cancer.
Free radicals also cause damage to other cells and tissues in the body, which may lead to other diseases such as atherosclerosis, heart disease, and arthritis.

When free radicals increase significantly, this can cause oxidative stress. Oxidative stress (chronic oxidation) is an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favor of the oxidants, potentially leading to cell/tissue damage.
Oxidative stress occurs when our exposure to, or our body’s production of, free radicals exceeds our body’s ability to counteract or detoxify their harmful effects through neutralization by the body's internal antioxidants.
However, similar to inflammation, oxidation is not harmful as long as it doesn't get out of control. For example, free radicals are normally used by the immune system to attack and kill invading germs and some pre-cancer cells. 
As shown in the diagram below, when oxidation gets out of control (oxidative stress), it is involved in accelerated biological aging as well as in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including atherosclerosis, cancer, Type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer's, and heart disease.

Glycation

Red blood cells contain a small amount of glucose molecules attached (glycated) to the protein portion of the red blood cells. This is considered normal.
However, when there is an excess amount of glucose molecules in the bloodstream (i.e. hyperglycemia), this increases the amount of glucose molecules that are attached to the red blood cells. This process is known as glycation.
As depicted in the following diagram of a red blood cell, in a diabetic's body, there are a lot more glucose molecules attached to the hemoglobin within the red blood cell.
Red-Blood-Cells-Hemoglobin-and-Glucose-Molecules
Glycation is a process where glucose molecules attach themselves to red blood cells, forming a crystalline (coarse) crust and creating advanced glycation end products (AGEs). See diagram below of a glycated red blood cell.
As these coarse red blood cells circulate throughout the body, they cause damage throughout the circulatory system to arteries and capillaries.
As you can see from the diagram (below), a glycated red blood cell has "jagged" edges, which cause damage to the linings of your blood vessels.
In response to this damage, your immune system triggers various white blood cells and other cells to release various enzymes and repair agents to try to repair the damage caused by the diabetes.
But, the immune system lacks the resources (e.g. vitamins and minerals) to repair the damage, so it becomes overwhelmed and ill-equipped to deal with the scope of this disease.
Glycated Red Blood Cell
This damage is repaired by the cholesterol produced by the liver, leading to arterial plaque formation -- all triggered by an inflammatory response. These coarse red blood cells cause greater damage in dense capillary areas such as the hands and feet, and fragile capillaries such as those that feed the kidneys and the eyes.
These advanced glycation end products (AGEs) form at a constant but slow rate in the normal body, starting in early embryonic development, and accumulate with time. However, their formation is accelerated in diabetes because of the increased availability of glucose.
As a result, an increase in AGEs can be found in vascular tissues, retinal vessels, nerve cells (myelin sheath damage) and glomeruli membranes of diabetic patients, which can lead to atherosclerosis, retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy.
Increased AGE accumulation in the diabetic vascular tissues has been associated with changes in endothelial cell, macrophage, and smooth muscle cell function.
In addition, AGEs can modify LDL cholesterol in such a way that it tends to become easily oxidized and deposited within vessel walls, causing streak formation and, in time, atheroma. AGE-crosslink formation results in arterial stiffening with loss of elasticity of large vessels, which, over time, can lead to high blood pressure, atherosclerosis and heart disease.
Studies in animals have demonstrated an important relationship between high dietary AGE intake (e.g. fried foods, fast foods) and the development or progression of diabetes-related tissue damage, e.g., vascular and renal.
This can be prevented by following a diet designed to be low in AGEs (such as the Death to Diabetes Diet). This type of diet can decrease AGE intake by more than 50% and reduce circulating AGEs by ∼30% within 2-3 months, reducing fasting blood glucose and hemoglobin A1C levels. 

Formation of Red Blood Cells

Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are produced through a process called erythropoiesis. Erythropoiesis is the development process in which new erythrocytes are produced in the bone marrow, through which each cell matures in about seven days.
Through this process, erythrocytes are continuously produced in the red bone marrow of large bones, at a rate of about 2 million cells per second in a healthy adult. 
Within the bone marrow, all blood cells originate from a single type of unspecialized cell called a stem cell. When a stem cell divides, it first becomes an immature red blood cell, white blood cell, or platelet-producing cell. The immature cell then divides, matures further, and ultimately becomes a mature red blood cell, white blood cell, or platelet.
The rate of blood cell production is controlled by the body's needs. Normal blood cells last for a limited time (ranging from a few hours to a few days for white blood cells, to about 10 days for platelets, to about 120 days for red blood cells) and must be replaced constantly.
Key Point About Your Red Blood Cells: When new red blood cells are created, they are "virgin" and have no glucose attached to them. When the new red blood cells leave the bone marrow and enter your bloodstream, some of them become glycated because of the high amount of glucose (molecules) in your bloodstream. These red blood cells cannot become unglycated.
However, since your red blood cells have a limited life span (90-120 days), the body eventually gets rid of the glycated red blood cells and replaces them with new "virgin" red blood cells. But, since you're diabetic, the new virgin red blood cells eventually become glycated also.
However, if you start eating a plant-based diet, the amount of glucose molecules in your bloodstream begin to decrease and the amount of red blood cells that become overly glycated start to go down. Then, eventually, your blood glucose level will start to come down within 3 to 4 weeks, sometimes sooner.
As a result, you will notice your day-to-day blood glucose readings start to go down; although, on some days, it will still go up. But, as long you continue eating and exercising properly and consistently, eventually, after 3-4 months (or longer), your hemoglobin A1C will also start to come down.
Please keep in mind that, depending on the amount of glycation and how long you've been diabetic, it may take several months (or longer) to get your blood glucose back to the normal range.
Why is this a key point to understand? Because there are a lot of websites, videos, etc. claiming that they can cure your diabetes in 30 days or sooner! These websites are either lying to you or they're just ignorant when it comes to understanding cell biology, hematology, and biological processes such as erythropoiesis, specifically the life cycle of erythrocytes.
Since you now realize that it takes 90-120 days to turn over your red blood cells, you can't reverse or cure your diabetes in 30 days. So, although our program will begin to lower your blood glucose within 7 to 10 days, it takes a lot longer for your blood glucose to stabilize and be consistent.

Toxicity

We expose our bodies to toxins every day via food, water, air and the environment. Pesticides and chemical solvents are obvious toxins that most of us are aware of; but, there are thousands of other toxins that we may overlook.
For example, toxins from food (artificial sweeteners, food dye, trans fats, MSG) and water (fluoride, chlorine, arsenic) can cause serious damage to our cells and tissues, especially if we don't eat the right foods to help our organs remove these toxins from our bodies.
This constant exposure to these toxins every day puts a tremendous load on our liver, kidneys, colon and lungs to remove these toxins.
These toxins cause oxidative stress and inflammation, which cause cell and tissue damage. And, over a period of years, a toxic overload can lead to diseases such as cancer, diabetes, obesity, thyroid disease, autoimmune disease, and Alzheimer's.
Refer to the Cleanse-Detox web page for more information about these toxins and how to get rid of them.

Cells Affected and Damaged

As depicted in the following flowchart, there are many cells that are affected and damaged from long-term insulin resistance, chronic inflammation, excess  oxidation and glycation.
These cells include red blood cells, white blood cells, fat cells, liver cells, muscle cells, kidney cells, endothelial (blood vessel inner lining) cells, epithelial (skin)cells, nerve cells, brain cells, and cells associated with the eyes (e.g. retina) -- just to name a few.
Cells Affected and Damaged From Type 2 Diabetes
As depicted in the flowchart (above) and in the  following diagram, when these cells are damaged, this leads to a multitude ofdiabetic complications such as blindness, amputation and kidney failure. In addition, these processes fuel other diseases such as heart disease, arthritis, obesity, Alzheimer's and even some cancers.
Diabetic Complications Created From Damaged Cells