Monday, July 24, 2017

Autoimmune Diseases and Glycobiology

Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. In other words, the body actually attacks its own cells. The immune system mistakes some part of the body as a pathogen and attacks it. This may be due to a cellular communication problem.

At one time medical professional learned in biology classes that cellular communication in humans took place via proteins embedded in the surface of most cells of the body. New research in glycobiology has proven that this is not the case. Science now recognizes that cellular communication takes place via glycoproteins, which are the biological merging of specific plant carbohydrates and proteins embedded in cell surfaces.

It is believed that when certain high quality macronutrients are ingested, the body is able to form the very important glycoproteins that embed themselves on cell surfaces. It’s these exact glycoproteins that allow the cells of the immune system to communicate with one another.

Examples of high quality macronutrients ("super" carbs) include medicinal mushrooms, sea vegetables, some land vegetables and some whole fruits that are organically grown and ripened on the plant are rich sources of polysaccharides and phytonutrients. This is because vegetables and fruits plucked before ripening and subjected to ripening by artificial means do not have the last surge of nutrients which are only available to the naturally ripening process. 

Glycobiology is the study of the structure, biosynthesis, and biology of saccharides (sugar chains or glycans) that are widely distributed in nature. These saccharides (or sugar molecules) are essential components of all living things that require cell-to-cell communication to sustain life.

Glycobiology believes that these sugar molecules constitute an ‘alphabet’ of ‘letters’ that can be combined in endless ways to form ‘words’ which are used by the body to communicate information required for healthy function. McAnalley and Vennum (2000), explain that the process of molecular communication codes can be thought of as a written language whereby just as four different shapes can be combined to make many letters and the letters can be combined to make words, the different carbohydrate molecules combine to make cellular recognition (McAnalley and Vennum 2000, p2).

Once cells have been properly glycosylated only then are they able to send a cell-to-cell communication and communicate with other cells, (i.e. recognize the enemy and tag it).
It is believed that autoimmune diseases occur when cells are not properly glycosylated (the presence of a sugar added to a protein) and thereby unable to differentiate between a ‘friendly’ cell and an ‘unfriendly’ cell (Nugent 2005, p21).

However, if cells (such as red blood cells) are glycosylated improperly, this can lead to excessive glycation and damage to the red blood cells. Then, these damaged red blood cells create advanced glycated end products (AGEs) and cause damage to the arteries as they circulate throughout the body. 

Although it is recognized that a multiple of factors ensure good health and no one nutrient stands alone in this process, there is strong belief that without proper cell-to-cell communication, there is no hope for good health because without communication there can be no function.

Glycoproteins, proteoglycans and glycolipids are the most abundant glycoconjugates found in mammalian cells. They are found predominantly on the outer cell wall and in secreted fluids. Glycoconjugates have been shown to be important in cell-cell interactions due to the presence on the cell surface of various glycan binding receptors in addition to the glycoconjugates themselves.

However, more research in glycobiology needs to be performed and studied to determine the benefits to our health.

Please Note: In the meantime, do not waste your money buying glyconutrient supplements. Instead, get your key sugars from quality carbohydrates such as land vegetables, sea vegetables, whole fruits, beans, and some organic whole grains.

Friday, July 21, 2017

Top 10 Super Foods for Thyroid

When you have hypothyroidism, or an underactive thyroid, symptoms can include fatigue, depression, constipation, and other more serious health concerns. Fortunately, eating certain foods can help boost the effectiveness of your thyroid.
Bone Broth
Bone broth contains collagen, glycine and other nutrients that to help repair and heal a leaky gut. Seventy percent of our immune system resides in the gut, making it impossible to have a healthy and balanced body without a healthy digestive system. Bone broth naturally heals the gut lining, excellent news for anyone with leaky gut, which most people with autoimmune diseases suffer from! Bone broth is packed full of amino acids and collagen, making it both a thyroid and digestive health super food. You can drink it plain, like a savory tea, or use it as a base for soups and pastas.
Brazil Nuts
Brazil nuts are a top source of selenium. In fact, just two of these nuts contain 100 percent of your daily needs. Selenium is often forgotten about for optimal health, but this one mineral is necessary for a well-functioning thyroid, liver, skin health, and even a healthy body weight.
Selenium can also help decrease anti-thyroid antibodies and has even been shown to help improve the physical structure of the thyroid itself.
Macadamia nuts and hazelnuts are also particularly high in selenium.
Chlorella is a single cell fresh water green microalgae that is loaded with nutrients. It contains more nucleic acids (RNA/DNA) than any other food, which gives it a lot of energy producing potential.
It is a great supplement with a wide variety of useful nutritional applications, which include supporting natural detoxification, digestive health, immune function, thyroid support, inflammation reduction, antioxidant function, estrogen balance, cholesterol metabolism, and circulation.
Chlorella contains more chlorophyll than most plants, along with an impressive array of vitamins and minerals (A, D, E, K1, beta carotene, lutein, B vitamins, iron, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, and zinc).
Chlorella contains glyconutrients (glucose, mannose, rhamnose, arabinose, galactose, and xylose) and amino acids (glutamine, alanine, serine, glycine, proline, asparagine, threonine, lysine, cysteine, tyrosine, and leucine).
Chlorella is one of the top nutrients for absorption of toxic metals as it readily absorbs toxins such as uranium, cadmium and mercury.
Note: Chlorella can contain moderate levels of iodine, so those with iodine sensitive thyroid conditions or iodine allergies should avoid it. Those with auto-immune disease should consult with a doctor first as it can increase immune function and may make these conditions worse.
Coconut Oil
Coconut oil’s medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) support thyroid function, liver health, brain function, hormonal health, and help speed up metabolism naturally. So try adding a couple of teaspoons (or tablespoons) to your daily diet, but be sure to choose organic and extra virgin coconut oil as the best option.
One of the many unwanted side effects of Hashimoto’s is fatigue. If you find yourself dragging all day grabbing cup after cup of coffee just to stay awake, you may want to try adding some coconut oil to your diet. This oil contains two important acids, caprylic and lauric, which help balance your metabolism, fight fatigue, and provide powerful immune-boosting properties.
Coconut oil has even been shown to help fight off pathogens in the GI tract. This is extremely important because, as you now know, gut health and thyroid health go hand in hand.
Try adding a tablespoon or two of coconut oil to your morning smoothies for an extended energy boost while also supporting your metabolism and keeping your immune system in tiptop shape.
Grass-fed, organic eggs are fantastic for optimizing your thyroid. Eggs contain choline, vitamin D, B vitamins, easy to digest protein, and healthy fats, which all nourish the thyroid gland and promote optimal brain health.
Did you know that your thyroid can’t thrive without enough healthy fats? Cholesterol is actually the building block of hormones, so don’t fear the fats in whole eggs — enjoy them! Fats propel energy in the body and keep digestion humming along too, so skip all those egg white omelets and use some whole eggs once in a while!
Fermented Foods
Fermented foods such as sauerkraut, kimchee, coconut yogurt, and water kefir are loaded with healthy probiotics to help support the healthy bacteria in the gut.
Remember that gut health is central to the health of our immune system and thyroid. More and more evidence points to the fact that intestinal microbiota is essential for hormone balance.
Keeping the bacteria in our gut healthy requires that we feed the healthy bacteria in our digestive system to help keep the pathogenic bacteria out. You can top bowls with sauerkraut or just eat coconut yogurt plain for breakfast!
Flaxseeds are important for your health because it is high in fiber and it also aids your thyroid. Those with an underactive thyroid can boost their thyroid hormone ratio by consuming this food on a daily basis. You only need about one tablespoon of freshly ground flaxseed every day to reap its full benefits.
Fruits and Vegetables
An early symptom of hypothyroidism is weight gain. Low-calorie, high-density foods such as fresh produce are the cornerstone of every successful weight loss program. Include either fresh fruits or veggies at each meal, if possible.
Specific foods such as blueberries, cherries, sweet potatoes, and green peppers are also rich in antioxidants, nutrients that are known to lower risk for heart disease.
However, people with hypothyroidism may want to limit their intake of raw cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli and cabbage, to 5 ounces a day, as they can block the thyroid's ability to absorb iodine, which is essential for normal thyroid function.
You probably already use ginger to calm nausea and upset stomach, but it is also ideal for the thyroid. This herb is rich in zinc, magnesium and potassium, all of which are nutrients that the thyroid requires for optimal health. You must use the fresh ginger herb to reap the full benefits.
Goji Berries
Goji berries are an excellent source of flavonoids and are rich in antioxidants. In general, the endocrine system which also includes the thyroid is relatively fragile and vulnerable to damages caused by the oxidative processes.
These damages are a result from our exposure to toxins from the environment, sun radiation, and pesticides in fruits and veggies. Therefore, the foods that fight free radicals and are antioxidant-rich are vital for our health and well-being.
Licorice Root
Licorice root is an adaptogenic herb that helps balance cortisol levels and improves acid production in the stomach. Licorice root supports the body’s natural processes for maintaining the mucosal lining of the stomach and duodenum. This herb is especially beneficial if someone’s leaky gut is being caused by emotional stress.
Licorice root has been used for over 3,000 years in the treatment of digestive issues including ulcers and indigestion. If you have an underactive thyroid and are experiencing fatigue, this herb can help. Licorice also gives you a gentle boost in energy.
Consumption of Maca helps balancing the pituitary that itself sends hormonal signals to the thyroid thus regulating its work. This Peruvian root contains nutrients such as Vitamin B, zinc, iron and copper all of which boost the function of the thyroid.
Consume 2-3 Tbsp of Maca root powder with your morning smoothie or make a salad dressing with 2 Tbsp of Maca powder and olive oil and eat on salads.
Seaweed has a high concentration of iodine, an essential nutrient for thyroid function. Seaweed, packaged as nori, wakame, and dulse, can be used in sushi, soups, and salads. Another plus: Seaweed offers nutritional benefits of fiber, calcium, and vitamins A, B, C, E, and K.
But, it is possible to have too much iodine, which can worsen thyroid disease. However, according to the American Thyroid Association the likelihood of this is greater if you're taking supplements that contain iodine.
Keep in mind that if you suffer from a selenium deficiency, iodine can actually cause more inflammation. To prevent this from happening, try adding a couple of Brazil nuts to your diet to help balance both selenium and iodine.
Spirulina is rich in minerals including iodine, carotenoids, beta-carotene and Vitamin A. It is also one of the best green foods for detoxifying the liver. Good functioning of the liver is crucial as the transformation of the inactive hormone T4 (of the thyroid) into an active hormone T3 is taking place there.
In addition to all the nutrients Spirulina contains, it is also a great source of tyrosine. It is one of the most important amino-acids when it comes to healthy thyroid.
An all-around excellent health-promoting superfood, turmeric works well for those with Hashimoto’s since it’s great at reducing inflammation and can even help give your body a detoxifying boost.
Detoxification is important because some patients with Hashimoto’s also have heavy metal toxicity. This superfood has also been shown to inhibit thyroid cancer cells. Toss it in stir-fries, or sprinkle a bit in your smoothie in the morning.
Leafy green vegetables contain an array of B vitamins, amino acids, and minerals, like magnesium, which your body needs to function well.
Consume a variety of greens to ensure a balance, and so that you’re not consuming too much of one type. Try greens such as Romaine, spinach, arugula, collards, and spring mix lettuces to switch things up. When you go this route, a little kale and cabbage now and again will do the body good and are less likely to negatively affect your thyroid. Balance is key!
Wild Salmon
Wild salmon is a great food for your thyroid due to its high omega-3 fatty acid profile. Salmon is also a great source of B vitamins, Vitamin D, amino acids, magnesium, selenium, and zinc.
Be sure when you choose salmon to opt for wild fish from Alaskan or Norwegian waters. Farmed salmon and those that are cultivated in other parts of the world are usually filled with toxins, pesticides, antibiotics and more, which do not promote optimal health.

The omega-3 fatty acids found in other fatty fish such as trout, tuna, or sardines make these fish an excellent choice for lunch or dinner. Unmanaged hypothyroidism can increase the risk for heart disease as a result of higher levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), the "bad" cholesterol. Omega-3s are known to decrease inflammation, help with immunity, and lower the risk for heart disease. Fish is also a good source of the nutrient selenium, which is most concentrated in the thyroid and also helps decrease inflammation.

Note: Refer to the author's DTD Autoimmune Diseases  & Natural Remedies ebook, DTD Power of Juicing ebook and/or DTD Cleanse/Detox ebook to help with thyroid dysfunction (e.g. hypothyroidism, Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, Graves' Disease) and for natural thyroid remedies.

Death to Diabetes Website References: 
Autoimmune Diseases web page
Thyroid Diseases web page

Top Foods to Avoid for Thyroid Health

Most people are aware of the obvious healthy foods that will benefit your thyroid as well as your overall health. They include green, leafy and bright-colored vegetables, some fruits, plant oils, cold-water fish, and free-range animal meats.
Also, most people are aware of the obvious foods that are not good for your health, e.g. sugar, pastries, bread, trans fats, alcohol, and tobacco.
However, there are some unhealthy foods that you should avoid and some so-called healthy foods that you should limit or avoid, especially if you are having problems with your thyroid and you need to improve your metabolism, energy level, blood glucose, blood pressure, digestion, nerves, weight, and/or immune system activity.
These foods include: Coffee, Cruciferous Vegetables (Raw), Dairy Products (Cow's Milk/Cheese), Drugs, Fatty Foods, Fiber (Excess), Grains/ Gluten, Processed Foods, Soy, Sugar, and Vegetable Oils.
Almost everyone seems to loves coffee, so I'm sure most people are tired of hearing that they have to give up their coffee. Unfortunately, caffeine has been found to overstimulate the thyroid and block the absorption of thyroid hormone medication. When you take the medication with your morning coffee, this causes uncontrollable thyroid levels. Instead, take your medication with water; and, wait at least 30 minutes before having your coffee.
An even better option is to use our DTD Autoimmune Diseases Nutritional Program so that you can get off the thyroid medication and have your coffee whenever you want without any negative effects. (We'll discuss this program later).
Cruciferous Vegetables (Raw)
This is a tricky one. As you are probably aware, cruciferous vegetables (e.g. cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, Brussels sprouts, etc.) provide anti-cancer and blood glucose benefits. They are also beneficial to your thyroid, except in rare situations where the person is iodine-deficient and happens to eat a lot of raw cruciferous vegetables.
These vegetables contain substances called goitrogens, which are compounds that can inhibit the absorption of iodine by your thyroid gland. Iodine is a critical component in the manufacture of thyroid hormones.
To avoid this problem, get a physical exam to make sure that you're not iodine-deficient; and, steam or sauté your vegetables to break down the .
If you are iodine-deficient, make sure that you eat seaweed and wild-caught seafood (not farmed fish). These foods contain iodine, plus selenium, Vitamin D and zinc, which are all helpful for healthy thyroid function.
Dairy Products
Dairy products (e.g. cow’s milk, cheese, ice cream) can create a lot of inflammation in the body. Many people (e.g. lactose-intolerant) find dairy products difficult to digest and they are a common cause of irritable bowel syndrome, bloating and reflux.
If dairy products are disrupting your digestion, it means you will not be absorbing the nutrients from your meals adequately. It can also promote the growth of harmful microbes in your digestive tract such as bad bacteria, yeast and fungi.
The protein in dairy products is called casein and in many people it worsens autoimmune disease just as much as gluten.
Most drug affect the biochemistry and hormonal balance within your body, which can affect your thyroid. Avoid recreational drugs such as alcohol, beer, wine and tobacco. And, if possible, avoid OTC drugs and prescription drugs.
FYI: Alcohol has a toxic effect on the thyroid gland and suppresses the ability of the body to use thyroid hormone. Ideally, people with hypothyroidism should cut out alcohol completely or drink in careful moderation.
Fried/Fatty Foods
Fried foods such as French fries and fried meats contain carcinogens and unhealthy fats that cause damage to our cells and negatively affect our hormonal balance.

Fats have been found to disrupt the function of the thyroid and the body's ability to absorb thyroid hormone replacement medicines. Fats may also interfere with the thyroid's ability to produce hormone as well. 

Some health care professionals recommend that you cut out all fried foods and reduce your intake of fats from sources such as pasteurized butter, mayonnaise, margarine, and fatty cuts of meat.
Fiber (Excess)
I'm sure this one is a surprise. Getting enough fiber is good for you, but too much can complicate your hypothyroidism treatment. Amounts of dietary fiber from whole grains, vegetables, fruits, beans, and legumes that go above 35 mg a day may affect your digestive system and can interfere with the absorption of thyroid hormone replacement drugs. If you're on a high-fiber diet, ask your doctor if you need a higher dose of thyroid medication. Your maintenance dose may need to be increased if you aren't absorbing enough medication.
Of course, as mentioned earlier, the best way to get around this problem is to follow an autoimmune/thyroid-friendly diet such as the DTD Autoimmune Diseases Nutritional Program so that you are able to control your thyroid without the need for the medication.
Wheat and other grains like rye, barley, spelt, millet and oats contain gluten, which is a major trigger for thyroid problems and autoimmune diseases.
Gluten can irritate the small intestine and cause a great deal of inflammation in the body, and in some people it can trigger an autoimmune thyroid-related disease such as Hashimoto's Thyroiditis or Graves' Disease.
Gluten may also hamper the absorption of thyroid hormone replacement medication.
Processed Foods
Processed foods may taste good, but, they are empty calories that leave us with food cravings and biochemical/hormonal imbalances. In addition, these foods tend to contain lots of sodium and partially hydrogenated oils (trans fats).

Having an underactive thyroid increases a person's risk for high blood pressure, and too much sodium further increases this risk. And, processed foods tend to have a lot of sodium. People with an increased risk for high blood pressure should restrict their sodium intake to 1,500 milligrams a day, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

The hydrogenated oil (trans fats) is a "fake" fat that, when absorbed by your cells, causes damage to the integrity of the cell wall, leaving the cell susceptible to bacteria, viruses and toxins. Studies show that this type of fat can cause damage to the myelin sheath of the nerve cells and may even trigger certain autoimmune diseases!
This food has been marketed for years in the United States as a "healthy" food. But, most soy foods are overly-processed and come from genetically modified beans. Soy is very difficult to digest, so even if soy beans supposedly contain a fair amount of protein on paper, you absorb very little of that protein because of the enzyme inhibitors in soy beans.
The lectins in soy cause irritation to the gut lining and worsen leaky gut syndrome in people with autoimmune disease. Soy is also a source of goitrogens which inhibit iodine absorption.
Soy is loaded with plant-based phytoestrogen, and some researchers believe too much soy may increase a person's risk for hypothyroidism. Even a small serving of soy each day is enough to suppress thyroid function.
Soy is one of the worst foods for your thyroid. Don’t underestimate how damaging this food is to your metabolism.
You already know that sugar is bad for you; now you know it’s bad for your thyroid gland as well. This is because of the destructive effects sugar has on your immune system and your gut.
It raises inflammation in your body and makes all autoimmune diseases worse. Sugar fuels the growth of all sorts of harmful pathogens in your gut and fosters gut infections. If your gut lining is overgrown with harmful microbes, they inflame the lining of your intestines and cause “leaky gut syndrome”. This is an initiator and driver of all autoimmune diseases. ("Leaky gut syndrome" will be discussed in more detail later).
Vegetable Oils
Vegetable oils include corn oil, sunflower, safflower, soybean, cottonseed, canola, grape seed and rice bran oil. These oils are all very high in polyunsaturated fats. Your body does require some polyunsaturated fat but the problem with these oils is the delicate fats have been damaged. The extraction process (using heat and chemical solvents) causes the polyunsaturated fats to become damaged and oxidized. If you then cook with those oils, they become damaged even further.

Damaged fats create a great deal of inflammation in your body. They act as free radicals and cause wear and tear to your organs and tissues. Healthy fats to include in your diet include olive oil, macadamia nut oil, avocado oil, raw nuts and seeds, oily fish, avocados, coconut oil and grass-fed raw butter/ghee.

Note: Refer to the author's DTD Autoimmune Diseases  & Natural Remedies ebookDTD Power of Juicing ebook and/or DTD Cleanse/Detox ebook to help with thyroid dysfunction (e.g. hypothyroidism, Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, Graves' Disease) and for natural thyroid remedies.

Death to Diabetes Website References: 
Autoimmune Diseases web page

Thyroid Diseases web page

Organs Affected by the Thyroid

Because the thyroid gland affects multiple system, organs and parts of the body; and, because some of those systems affect the thyroid, this can make it difficult for your doctor to provide a proper medical diagnosis.
Systems and organs of the body that are affected by the thyroid include the following.
Adrenal Glands
Thyroid function is intricately tied to our adrenal health. Part of a comprehensive, functional medicine thyroid treatment plan usually involves adrenal gland support for the following reasons:
  • Adrenal fatigue causes the thyroid receptors on cells to lose their sensitivity to thyroid hormones
  • Adrenal fatigue can decrease the conversion of T4 to T3 to a usable form
  • Adrenal fatigue decreases the efficiency of the immune system barriers in the gut, lungs and the blood/brain barrier
  • Adrenal fatigue inhibits absorption of thyroid hormone into cells
  • Adrenal fatigue disrupts the interchange between the hypothalamus and pituitary gland with the thyroid gland

Blood Glucose
Blood glucose (or blood sugar) is controlled by the pancreas. The pancreas and thyroid are both part of the endocrine system. The endocrine system is made of many feedback loops and their various hormones all “talk” to one another and make changes to the body to try and keep things in balance.
These systems also work in both directions. They influence each other. In the case of sugar, insulin is released by the pancreas to help the cells of the body absorb sugar so that it can be used. And the adrenals release cortisol to help sugar get absorbed by the cells of the body.
A hypothyroid state leads to a slow absorption of glucose, a slower breakdown of insulin, a decrease of the speed at which glucose is absorbed in the gut, a lower glucose to insulin response and, finally, less glucose in the cells for the body to use. All of this means less energy to power your cells and brain and more fatigue.
To make matters worse, all of this affects the adrenal glands and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis). In order to try and fix the problem of not having enough sugar, the adrenal glands release the stress hormone cortisol to increase glucose in the cells.
Every Hashimoto’s patient has some degree of the sugar imbalance described above. If you are skinny, its probably hypoglycemia. If you are overweight it may be insulin resistance or metabolic syndrome. If you feel better after you eat, you are hypoglycemic. If you are tired after you eat, you have insulin resistance.
All of this creates a vicious cycle that can really stop you from getting better. All Hashimoto’s patients must take blood sugar problems seriously.
Thyroid hormones are very important for healthy brains. In the adult brain, thyroid hormones have shown the ability to help the brain grow and change and to help the brain age in a healthy way.
Hashimoto’s patients know about “brain fog”. There are many reasons for this, the principle ones being inflammation of the brain and a breakdown of the blood brain barrier. The proteins that protect the brain (called zonulin) are the very same proteins that protect the gut. So if you have leaky gut, there is a good chance that you also have leaky brain.
When your brain is inflamed you get brain fog and it degenerates.  There are 2 primary symptoms:
1. Depression
2. Fatigue
It is no surprise that the most common drugs prescribed with Hashimoto’s are anti-depressants. You absolutely must support your brain if you have these symptoms.
Brain fog is a brain cell activated immune response. The immune system in the brain is not specialized and sophisticated like the immune system in the rest of the body. Brain immune cells (called microglia) are kind of like paranoid chihuahuas with automatic rifles. They tend to over react quickly and when they do you get lots of inflammation (brain fog).
In some patients, thyroid hormone may improve brain fog. In others it won’t. You have to reduce inflammation in the brain in a different way. In my 6 week course you learn how to do this and what herbs and supplements can really help with this. One important herb that is used is turmeric.
Cardiovascular System (Circulatory)
Thyroid hormones have a big impact on many functions of the arteries and veins in the body. Low T3 levels have been linked to  diseases of the blood vessels. One of the most common problems that Hashimoto’s patients have is cold hands and feet. Hair loss and fungal nail growth can also be signs of poor blood flow.
Hypothyroidism is characterized by the reverse- a lowed heart rate and lower blood pressure. With lowered thyroid hormones in circulation there is an increased risk of atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction (heart attack).
Low thyroid function means less nitric oxide is available in the blood vessels, this can lead to a break down of the vessels themselves.  When you add in the problems with cholesterol and you have a recipe for plaque clogging the arteries.
Hyperthyroidism induces a hyper-dynamic cardiovascular state which manifests by a faster heart rate, higher systolic and diastolic function i.e. higher blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, and reduced exercise performance.
Insomnia is often associated with hyperthyroidism. Some of the symptoms and signs of hyperthyroidism can make sleep difficult. The stress of having a "racing" heart or palpitations, rapid pulse (above 100 beats per minute is considered tachycardia), and higher blood pressure can cause lack of sleep. 
Insomnia can also be related to a decreased amount of serotonin production that is linked to gut issues which are often seen with thyroid problems.
In hypothyroid conditions, both the breakdown and the use of cholesterol by the body are depressed. But the breakdown is much slower, so the net result is higher cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL. This may be slower because of a decrease in the breakdown of fats once they leave the liver or in a decline of LDL receptors.
This is why some Hashimoto’s patients also have high cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL (and sometimes low HDL). Once they get their thyroid under control, it is not unusual to see their cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides return to normal as well.
Digestive System
Chronic constipation is associated with hypothyroidism while diarrhea or frequent bowel movements are linked with hyperthyroidism. These symptoms are partly due to altered metabolism but also are created by faulty digestion beginning in the stomach. 
Hypothyroidism can reduce the production of stomach acid by its effect on the hormone, gastrin. When too little gastrin is produced, this reduces the amount of stomach acid (HC1). Bloating, G.E.R.D., heartburn, intestinal inflammation, decreased food digestion and more can result from the lack of normal HC1 levels.
Food allergies are consistently seen in those presenting with thyroid problems. Beyond gluten sensitivity, which most people are aware of, there are other food allergens to which patients will test positive.
Gall Bladder
Gall bladder function is also adversely affected in hypothyroid conditions. Studies have shown that the gall bladder gets larger and doesn’t contract normally.
Studies also report an increase in the number of gallstones and stones in the common bile duct. One reason they think this might be happening is because the thyroid hormone thyroxine relaxes the gall bladder's opening (called the sphincter of Oddi). This makes bile not flow normally, and makes the possibility of stones forming in the bile duct more likely.
Bile also helps to break down cholesterol so when there is less bile, less bile flow and gall bladder is slow and sluggish you have the perfect situation for stone formation.
Damage to the thyroid gland affects the body's metabolic rate. As a result, weight can be easily gained (hypothyroidism) or lost (hyperthyroidism). Hashimoto's disease can cause both weight loss and gain depending on the phase of autoimmune destruction of the thyroid gland.
Cold hands and feet are related to a low metabolism caused by hypothyroidism while sensitivity to heat is linked to hyperthyroidism.
Nervous System
The central nervous system (CNS) can be greatly affected by a thyroid disorder. The CNS reacts to both too little and too much thyroid hormone. Too little hormone causes mental sluggishness or "brain fog" while too much hormone induces anxiety and nervousness. Depression is commonly associated with thyroid conditions.
Recent studies have linked hypothyroidism and Hashimoto's disease with accelerated brain degeneration and development of Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease.
Red Blood Cells (Anemia)
Anemia is a condition that develops when your blood lacks enough healthy red blood cells or hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a main part of red blood cells and binds oxygen. If you have too few or abnormal red blood cells, or your hemoglobin is abnormal or low, the cells in your body will not get enough oxygen.
Anemia is diagnosed in 20-60% of patients with hypothyroidism and is often the first sign of hypothyroidism. Anemia caused by an iron or B12 deficiency begins in the stomach and stems from low stomach acid also known as hydrochloric acid or HCl. Hypothyroidism causes the hormone, gastrin, to decrease.
The production of stomach acid, HCl, depends on the hormone gastrin. So when gastrin is diminished there is less stomach acid. Less stomach acid hinders the absorption of such vital nutrients as B12, iron, and calcium.
The most common symptom of anemia is fatigue which is also the hallmark symptom of hypothyroidism.
Reproductive System
Hypothyroidism can be related to heavy menstrual flow, miscarriage, and infertility in women. Hypothyroidism can decrease the absorption of the sex hormone, progesterone, by the body's cells which can upset the menstrual cycle.
Hypothyroidism can also cause constipation which can delay the body's normal elimination of another sex hormone, estrogen.
Skeletal System
Low TSH or a hyperthyroid state can lead to an increased lifetime risk for fractures, even after TSH has become normal again.
In children, a lack of thyroid hormones will affect normal growth. Adults tend to have higher than normal bone density. But, this higher density does not necessarily mean good bone quality: there may be issues with collagen, bone turnover, the size of mineral crystals and bone structure. So, even though the bones are more dense, these people may still be at risk for fractures because the bone quality is really poor.

Given the many systems and parts of the body that are affected by your thyroid, that means there is a very good reason why you are experiencing the symptoms that you have. There are very clear reasons why your body is experiencing what it is going through. 
The goal of this information is to help you to understand how all this works in simple layman terms, so that you can discover how to get control of your health without having to rely on a lot of drugs.
Note: For more details, get the author's DTD Autoimmune Diseases & Natural Treatment Strategies ebook, which includes nutritional, herbal and lifestyle strategies for optimizing the health of your thyroid and rebalancing your immune system.