Sunday, May 15, 2016

Blood Glucose Control

Your blood glucose level, or blood sugar level, refers to the concentration of sugar (in the form of glucose) in your blood. The unit of measurement is millimoles per liter (mmol/L).

Why is there glucose (or sugar) in the blood? Every time you eat food, your body has the task of breaking that food down into a usable form of energy it can use to keep you functioning properly. All foods are (generally) made up of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, fiber and water. Carbohydrate rich foods give your body its main form of energy. They get broken down into glucose and move into the bloodstream where they are absorbed by cells for use or storage. Glucose, or "blood sugar", is likened to "the gasoline that is essential to make your car run".

Blood Glucose Regulation

Your body tries to keep a constant supply of glucose for your cells by maintaining a constant glucose concentration in your blood -- otherwise, your cells would have more than enough glucose right after a meal and starve in between meals and overnight.

So, when you have an oversupply of glucose, your body stores the excess in the liver and muscles by making glycogen, long chains of glucose. When glucose is in short supply, your body mobilizes glucose from stored glycogen and/or stimulates you to eat food. The key is to maintain a constant blood-glucose level via blood glucose regulation.

Blood glucose regulation, also known as glucose homeostasis, relies on the balance and interactions of two hormones — insulin and glucagon — to maintain a healthy blood glucose level.
Under normal circumstances, the body is able to balance the amount of glucose, or sugar, in the blood with the amount of glucose that the cells need for fuel. The pancreas (beta cells) produces the hormone insulin, which facilitates the transport of glucose into the cells. Too little available insulin in the bloodstream will reduce the amount of glucose that the cells are able to absorb. This will raise the blood glucose level, which in turn stimulates the pancreas to release more insulin and allow more glucose absorption.

The other side of the equation in glucose homeostasis involves glucagon — another hormone produced by the pancreas (alpha cells). Glucagon works in a similar butopposite manner as insulin. When blood glucose levels are low, the pancreas releases glucagon. The hormone stimulates the liver to release glucose stored within its cells, thus raising blood glucose levels to a normal level.



Note: The pancreas has many islets that contain insulin-producing
beta cells and glucagon-producing alpha cells.

Insulin
Insulin is a protein hormone that contains 51 amino acids . Insulin is required by almost all of the body's cells, but its major targets are liver cells, fat cells,  and muscle cells. For these cells, insulin does the following:
  • Stimulates liver and muscle cells to store glucose in glycogen
  • Stimulates fat cells to form fats from fatty acids and glycerol
  • Stimulates liver and muscle cells to make proteins from amino acids 
  • Inhibits the liver and kidney cells from making glucose from intermediate compounds of metabolic pathways (gluconeogenesis)
As such, insulin stores nutrients right after a meal by reducing the concentrations of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids in the bloodstream.

     

Glucagon
At very high concentrations, generally above the maximum levels found in the body, glucagon can act on fat cells to break down fats into fatty acids and glycerol, releasing the fatty acids into the bloodstream. However, this is a pharmacological effect, not a physiological one.
So, what happens when you do not eat? In times of fasting, your pancreas releases glucagon so that your body can produce glucose. Glucagon is another protein hormone that is made and secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreatic islets. Glucagon acts on the same cells as insulin, but has the opposite effects:
  • Stimulates the liver and muscles to break down stored glycogen (glycogenolysis) and release the glucose
  • Stimulates gluconeogenesis in the liver and kidneys
In contrast to insulin, glucagon mobilizes glucose from stores inside your body and increases the concentrations of glucose in the bloodstream -- otherwise, your blood glucose would fall to dangerously low levels.
So how does your body know when to secrete glucagon or insulin? Normally, the levels of insulin and glucagon are counter-balanced in the bloodstream. For example, just after you eat a meal, your body is ready to receive the glucose, fatty acids and amino acids absorbed from the food.

The presence of these substances in the intestine stimulates the pancreatic beta cells to release insulin into the blood and inhibit the pancreatic alpha cells from secreting glucagon. The levels of insulin in the blood begin to rise and act on cells (particularly liver, fat and muscle) to absorb the incoming molecules of glucose, fatty acids and amino acids.

This action of insulin prevents the blood-glucose concentration (as well as the concentrations of fatty acids and amino acids) from substantially increasing in the bloodstream. In this way, your body maintains a steady blood-glucose concentration in particular.
In contrast, when you are between meals or sleeping, your body is essentially starving. Your cells need supplies of glucose from the blood in order to keep going.

During these times, slight drops in blood-sugar levels stimulate glucagon secretion from the pancreatic alpha cells and inhibit insulin secretion from the beta cells. Blood-glucagon levels rise.

Glucagon acts on liver, muscle and kidney tissue to mobilize glucose from glycogen or to make glucose that gets released into the blood. This action prevents the blood-glucose concentration from falling drastically.
As you can see, the interplay between insulin and glucagon secretions throughout the day help to keep your blood-glucose concentration constant, staying at about 90 mg per 100 ml of blood (5 millimolar).

Epinephrine, Cortisol, and Growth Hormone
Epinephrine, cortisol, and growth hormone are other hormones that help maintain blood glucose levels. They are called “stress” or “gluco-counter-regulatory” hormones – which means that they make the blood glucose rise.
Epinephrine (adrenaline) is released from nerve endings and the adrenals, and acts directly on the liver to promote sugar production (via glycogenolysis). Epinephrine also promotes the breakdown and release of fat nutrients that travel to the liver and that are converted into sugar and ketones.

Cortisol is a steroid hormone also secreted from the adrenal gland. It makes fat and muscle cells resistant to the action of insulin, and enhances the production of glucose by the liver. Under normal circumstances, cortisol counterbalances the action of insulin. Under stress or if a synthetic cortisol is given as a medication (such as with prednisone therapy or cortisone injection), cortisol levels become elevated and you become insulin resistant. When you have Type 2 diabetes, this means your may need to take more medication or insulin to keep your blood sugar under control.

Growth Hormone is released from the pituitary, which is a part of the brain. Like cortisol, growth hormone counterbalances the effect of insulin on muscle and fat cells. High levels of growth hormone cause resistance to the action of insulin.
The Major Constituents of Foods
Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins are the major constituents of foods and serve as fuel molecules for the human body. The digestion (breaking down into smaller pieces) of these nutrients in the alimentary tract and the subsequent absorption (entry into the bloodstream) of the digestive end products make it possible for tissues and cells to transform the potential chemical energy of food into useful work.
The major absorbed end products of food digestion are monosaccharides, mainly glucose (from carbohydrates); monoacylglycerol and long-chain fatty acids (from lipids); and small peptides and amino acids (from protein). Once in the bloodstream, different cells can metabolize these nutrients.

Note: We have long known that these three classes of molecules are fuel sources for human metabolism, yet it is a common misconception that human cells use only glucose as a source of energy. This misinformation may arise from the way most textbooks explain energy metabolism, emphasizing glycolysis (the metabolic pathway for glucose degradation) and omitting fatty acid or amino acid oxidation.
In a healthy individual, the hormonal interactions and adjustments (of insulin and glucagon) maintain a fairly constant and optimal blood glucose level. When something interrupts this glucose homeostasis, a person may experience blood glucose levels outside the normal range for a healthy person. Hyperglycemia, or high blood glucose, can occur when the pancreas produces insufficient insulin or when cells are resistant to insulin.

Insufficient insulin and insulin resistance are associated with diabetes mellitus and can cause severe hyperglycemia. Patients with diabetes mellitus should closely monitor their blood glucose levels. Individuals with diabetes will need to dramatically change their diet and lifestyle; otherwise, they may have to take insulin injections or oral medications to control their high blood glucose. Left untreated, diabetes mellitus and the associated hyperglycemia can damage the kidneys, eyes, brain, legs, and circulatory system.

Hypoglycemia, or low blood glucose, is typically considered less serious than hyperglycemia unless the hypoglycemia is present in a patient with diabetes. In such cases, the hypoglycemia can mean an overdose of administered insulin or oral medication, which can lead to dangerously low blood glucose levels. Less serious cases can occur because of fasting, overexertion, or some metabolic condition. Symptoms of hypoglycemia include fatigue, nausea, and dizziness.

What is Normal Blood Glucose (Blood Sugar)?

Author's Note: When I was diabetic, I never received a consistent answer concerning what is "normal"? I was told that a normal blood glucose for me would be higher because I was diabetic. So "normal" varies from person to person depending on your health state, but, as an engineer, I found that too confusing. So, I asked what is normal for a non-diabetic, and I used that as my goal for determining if my diabetes was improving. I also increased my blood glucose testing because I knew that the more data I collected, the better I would understand what was going on in my body.
Unfortunately, some diabetics don't like to test because of the frustration and anxiety associated with the readings. But, blood glucose testing (and the analysis) are the most powerful diagnostic tools available to a diabetic to get his/her diabetes under control.
Note: Read Chapters 3 and 11 of Death to Diabetes for more information about blood glucose testing, or get  the Power of Blood Glucose Testing PDF.

Normal Blood Glucose Readings

First of all, whether you're diabetic or non-diabetic, it is normal for your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels to vary throughout the day and night. So whether you're diabetic or not, it is normal for your blood sugar to rise, especially after eating a meal or during a stressful event.
Normal range (before meals): 80 mg/dl to 100 mg/dl, but ideally you want your average fasting blood glucose level to be consistently below 100 mg/dl, i.e. 90 mg/dl. 

                Blood Glucose Tracking Is Invaluable
Normal range (2 hours after meals): 90 mg/dl to 110 mg/dl, but ideally you want your average fasting blood glucose level to be consistently below 105 mg/dl after meals. More importantly, you don't want your post-meal blood glucose level to remain above 120 mg/dl for more than 3 hours -- that's when diabetes does its most damage!

Healthy, non-diabetic people normally have blood glucose levels of less than 110 mg/dl two hours after a normal meal, rarely exceeding 140 mg/dl. Blood glucose levels usually return to normal within two to three hours.
When your fasting blood glucose level goes far above 126 mg/dl, the excess glucose is converted to fat (triglycerides). When your blood glucose goes far below 80 mg/dl, your body enters starvation mode and will not burn any fat for fuel.
Note: You've probably noticed that these numbers are different depending on who you talk to or what website you visit. "Normal" for a diabetic tends to be different from a non-diabetic. But, that should not be the case -- especially since it causes a lot of confusion.  The bottom line here is that you want your average fasting blood glucose levels to be consistently in the 80-100 range, and your 2-hour post-meal readings to be consistently in the 90-110 range.
Consequently, it is not normal for your blood sugar to rise above 160 mg/dl or remainabove 140 mg/dl  two hours after eating; or, to dip below 70 mg/dl.
In those cases, you may become pre-diabetic or diabetic if the very high or very low readings persist over a period of years. This is why visiting your doctor and getting tested is so important.
Another key point that the average diabetic overlooks is the importance of consistentreadings without a lot of variation -- this is known as a standard deviation in mathematics.  It is very important to have a small deviation or swing of readings.
For example, Person A has readings of 60 and 140 for an average of 200/2 or 100. Person B has readings of 100 and 110 for an average of 210/2 or 105. On the surface, you may think that Person A is better off because his average is lower than Person B's. But Person A has a wider swing of 80 points (from the norm of 100), while Person B's swing is much less: 10 points. Consequently, Person B is doing a better job at managing his diabetes.
One more key point from the author: I found that the more readings I took, the better I could interpret the data and draw good conclusions. The more data I had, the better. As a result, when I had one high reading out of 20 versus 1 high reading out of 5, I wasn't overly-concerned with the one high reading.
But, most diabetics don't test that frequently because they don't want the constant reminder that they're diabetic ... plus, no one has taught them how to use the data to take corrective actions that can actually reverse their diabetes!

To summarize:
-- Keep your average post-meal blood glucose in the target range
-- Keep any single blood glucose readings below 140 mg/dl
-- Don't allow your blood glucose to remain over target after 2-3 hours

Why Blood Glucose Levels Change During The Day

Your blood glucose levels vary (up or down) due to a number of factors such as those listed below:
1. Eating food. As the carbs in food break down, glucose is released into the bloodstream ready to be absorbed by cells. Increased glucose in the bloodstream = higher blood sugar level.
2. Exercise. Exercise provides many benefits to your body, including burning excess sugar and reducing insulin resistance (by making cells more receptive to insulin, so rather than requiring more insulin to facilitate glucose uptake, the insulin you already have becomes a bit more effective). However the effect on blood sugar depends on the type of exercise, the duration of exercise, glucose and insulin levels before you start exercising.
During long, intense workouts the body may release adrenaline which counteracts the efforts of insulin. The normal process for blood sugar would be to be absorbed by cells (via insulin) for utilization or storage. Adrenaline causes the glucose to be redirected to where it is required for use immediately rather than for storage. 
3. Your physiology. The fitter you are the better. More specifically, if you have a greater muscle to fat ratio, you will burn energy at a faster rate and therefore be more effective at reducing your blood glucose level. Also, muscles do not rely on insulin to absorb/use blood glucose - same goes for the brain.
4. Emotions. Stress increases your blood glucose level. It also causes some people to forget to take their medication, turn to comfort foods, overeat and therefore introduce a higher than normal amount of glucose in the blood.
5. Sleeping. People often talk about the "dawn phenomenon" with regard to diabetes, where your blood sugar level spikes in the mornings as a result of the body releasing hormones which increase insulin resistance. However, another explanation could be a slow metabolism of dinner from the night before. Some research also suggests that not getting enough sleep causes the liver to produce/release more glucose, hence increasing your blood sugar levels.
6. Medications. Obviously, the medication you take regulates your blood sugar level and therefore your readings during the day, depending on when you took the medication. But, the medications don't get rid of your diabetes!
Note: Read Chapter 11 of Death to Diabetes for more information.
Note: As depicted in the following diagram, after eating a meal, blood glucose is produced, stored and distributed to the liver, brain, kidneys, muscles and cells throughout the body.

                 Blood Glucose Distribution

Key Message: If you want to reverse and defeat your diabetes, you must do more than just control your blood sugar! Read Chapters 7, 8, 9, 10, 14, and 15 of Death to Diabetes for more information.

Why Blood Glucose Levels Remain High

There are several reasons why your blood glucose levels remain too high.

Poor Dieting: Nutrition and meal planning are the foundation of effective diabetes management. Refined carbohydrates like cakes, cookies, bread, and soft drinks are metabolized quickly and cause high levels of blood sugar. The best foods for diabetics should include complex carbohydrates such as vegetables and beans which raise sugar more slowly and can keep it at an appropriate level for longer period of time. In addition, consistency in the time intervals between meals helps to prevent hypoglycemia and maintain overall blood glucose under control.

Lack of Proper Knowledge About Medications: Diabetes medications alter blood sugar levels. They must be taken in specific amounts at regular intervals. Maintaining a schedule is vital to ensuring stable blood sugar levels. Knowing how other medications affect the blood sugar is important, others like corticosteroids are known to increase blood sugar levels in some patients, even those who have not been diagnosed with diabetes. Proper storage of insulin is important to maintain its effectiveness.

Stress and Illness: Stress and illness can affects the blood sugar. During stress the cortisol hormone is produced to combat stress and is responsible for raise in the blood sugar level.

Lack of Consistent Exercise: Exercise is another important factor in effective diabetes management because of its effect on lowering blood glucose and reducing cardiovascular risks factor. Exercise lowers blood glucose level by increasing the uptake of glucose by body muscles and by improving insulin utilization. It also improves circulation and muscle tone. Regular daily exercise, rather than sporadic exercise should be encouraged.

Other Concerns: On the other hand, when it comes to health care providers, effective behavior intervention can only be attained if we understands why, how and when the patient fail to engage in optimal diabetes self-management behavior. There would be possible reasons such as: lack of knowledge and skills about the disease, financial concerns, lack of patient motivation. The patient may also have some beliefs and attitudes that affects the overall self care management.

There are other environmental concerns that would affects the patient's ability to appropriate self care. This could be conflict among the family members that may undermine the given diabetes management. There is the possibility that the patient may be having specific psychological or psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety or eating disorders that impair effective diabetes management. These are some of the issues that should be screened for their potential role in diabetes management problems.

Diabetes (High Blood Sugar)

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemia
Some people develop very high blood glucose and become quite ill without also developing ketones. This illness is called hyperosmolar hyperglycemia and is not very common. It may be caused by several factors (including an infection, flu, virus, other illness, some medications, or poor self-care) and is marked by severe dehydration.
Call the doctor if your blood glucose is 250 mg/dl or higher for more than two readings and you:

  • Are urinating more frequently than usual
  • Are excessively thirsty
  • Feel ill
  • Have a fever
  • Feeling very fatigued
  • Feel sick to your stomach or are throwing up
  • Experience vision impairment
  • Have unexplained weight loss
  • Are unable to focus attention properly
  • Are very moody, irritable
Possible Dangers: kidney damage, coma, heart disease, stroke

Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar)

Low blood glucose, or hypoglycemia, is one of the most common problems associated with insulin treatment, but it can also happen to people with diabetes who are taking pills. In general, hypoglycemia is defined as a blood glucose level below 70 mg/dl (if your meter tests whole blood) or 80 mg/dl or lower (if, like most new meters, yours tests plasma), or below 90 mg/dl if you have symptoms. Be sure to ask your healthcare team what would be considered a low blood glucose requiring treatment.
Hypoglycemia is characterized by the pancreas releasing glucagon (another hormone) when the blood sugar drops below a certain level. Glucagon triggers the release of glucose into the bloodstream from stores such as the liver.

Hypoglycemia is usually unpleasant, with the most common symptoms being shakiness and sweatiness and having one's heart pound. The most common reasons for hypoglycemia are too much insulin, too little food, or too much activity. A less common but occasional cause is drinking alcoholic beverages. Most hypoglycemia, if quickly and appropriately treated, is more of an inconvenience than a cause for alarm.

However, severe hypoglycemia can cause mental confusion, antagonistic behaviors, unconsciousness, and seizures. This is due to your brain needing a minimum amount of sugar to function properly.

The biggest danger is not the condition itself but what may happen as a result: a motor vehicle accident caused by passing out at the wheel or swerving into oncoming traffic, or a tumble down stairs, for example. In rare cases, seizures can result in brain damage.
To avoid problems with hypoglycemia:
  • Recognize the symptoms, which are specific to each individual and may change over time. If you have symptoms, test immediately if possible to see if your blood glucose is low.
  • Understand the interaction between food intake, treatment, and physical activity so you can anticipate when hypoglycemia is a risk.
  • Always carry some fast-acting (simple) carbohydrates or glucose pills. Don't overdo it: The most common error is to over-treat low blood glucose episodes.
  • Check blood glucose levels again in 15 minutes, and repeat treatment if symptoms persist or blood glucose levels have not risen to your target level or above.
  • Check blood glucose levels before driving if you think you may be low—and stop the car immediately if you're already underway. Treat immediately with the appropriate amount of fast-acting carbohydrate. Check blood glucose levels again in 15 minutes, and do not start driving again until you're no longer hypoglycemic.
Symptoms: trouble speaking, weakness, palpitations, a sense of urgency to go and eat
Detection: training, monitoring blood sugar levels
Dangers: Unconsciousness (diabetic coma), death

Guidelines for Days When You're Sick

When people with diabetes are sick with a cold or the flu, or are vomiting, or recovering from surgery, their blood glucose will often be higher than usual—even if they are eating less food. This is because insulin is often less effective during an illness or after an injury. Talk to your healthcare provider about how to manage your disease when you're not feeling well. In general, the following "sick day" steps should be taken to keep your blood glucose under control:

  • Check your blood glucose every three to four hours, including during the night. Have someone do it for you if you are too sick to do it yourself.
  • Check for ketones if your plasma blood glucose is 250 mg/dl or higher, unless otherwise instructed by your healthcare team.
  • Write down the results of your blood glucose and ketone checks, and have them ready if you need to call your healthcare provider.
  • Drink plenty of fluids—about 6 to 8 ounces every hour you are awake. If you are able to eat your meals, drink fluids that are sugar free and caffeine free. If you are unable to eat, alternate sugar-free fluids one hour with fluids containing sugar the next. Include liquids with salt, too, such as bouillon or clear soup.
  • Rest. Stay warm.
  • Take your usual diabetes medication as prescribed, unless your healthcare provider instructs you differently. In some cases, additional medication is required.
  • Call your healthcare provider if: you are vomiting or have diarrhea for more than two hours; you have a fever; your blood glucose values remain above 250 mg/dl for at least two checks or do not decrease with extra insulin (whether or not you have ketones); you have stomach pains that won't go away.

Diabetes Burnout


Diabetes burnout is a common patient reaction to the overwhelming, demanding, and frustrating burden of self-care: You know that reasonable care is important for your health, but you don't have the motivation to continue to be vigilant when it seems that blood glucose fluctuations are inevitable anyway.

Here's how to get back on track:

  • Remember that success depends upon having realistic, practical, and achievable goals. Define one action you could take to start to improve your situation—preferably a fairly easy action that makes success likely.
  • If a specific obstacle keeps getting in your way, try to define it concretely. When, where, and why does the problem occur? Consider changing your behavior or your environment, either to make handling the issue easier or to avoid it.
  • Consider: Are there other people who could help you? Moral support at home, at work, and in social situations can make a big difference. Decide what kind of support you need, and ask.
  • Understand that strong negative feelings about diabetes are normal. Talking with family, friends, health professionals, and other people with diabetes about your feelings can help you to better tolerate them and react in constructive rather than self-destructive ways.
  • Keep your eye on the rewards of good care, not the consequences of failure. Fears about complications may motivate you for a short time, but in the long run most people either dismiss their fears or become paralyzed by them. Rather, focus on how great you've felt when you've managed the disease well.
Countermeasures:
Get started with the Death to Diabetes Super Breakfast, and get the Death to Diabetesbook or ebook.

Note: Do not rely strictly on supplements to fight and defeat your diabetes -- eat wholefoods!

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How To Properly Manage Your Blood Sugar Levels to Reverse Your Type 2 Diabetes

1. Superior Nutrition

Super Meal Model Diet for Diabetics
The Super Meal Model Diet for Diabetics is simply a method of defining superior foods that have a positive effect on your blood sugar level, blood pressure, blood cholesterol, and other health areas. Superior (or super) foods contain the critical micronutrients that the body needs to fight the diabetes and repair the damage to the cells and organs caused by the diabetes.
How and when to eat
Eating smaller meals more regularly (e.g. 4 to 6 meals a day instead of 3) will condition your body to "know" that the next meal is not that far away, giving a more constant supply of energy.
Super foods
Super foods include bright-colored vegetables, green vegetables, bight-colored fruits, beans, legumes, cold-water fish (i.e. wild salmon, tuna), filtered water, plant oils (i.e. extra virgin olive oil, ev coconut oil, macadamia nut oil), and organic whole grains.
A comprehensive list of super foods can be found in Chapter 7 of the Death to Diabetesbook or the Super Foods PDF.
Herbs that lower blood sugar
Some of the herbs include gymnema sylvestre, bitter melon, American ginseng, Chinese cinnamon, fenugreek, ginger, prickly pear and turmeric.
Note: All herbs should be taken with caution - excess could lead to hypoglycemia.

2. Lifestyle

Exercise
You can start by making small changes to your daily routine - taking the stairs, riding a bike, walking etc. Ideally over time you would incorporate a combination of a range of different exercises such as aerobic, strength and flexibility exercises.
Don't overdo it. 30 minutes a day can be enough to make a difference, however each person's situation is different. As described above, exercise can influence the way your body reacts to insulin, but the benefits are greater. 
A rule of thumb: if you're not breathing faster than normal, what you're doing is not helping. On the other hand, if you can't talk while exercising, it's too strenuous.
Also, be sure to wear comfortable shoes. When diagnosing diabetes, doctors sometimes check a person's feet for poor circulation, which can lead to infections or slow healing of bruises. Smoking also reduces blood supply to your feet - so QUIT!
Build Muscle with weight resistance training because since muscle tissue does not rely on insulin to make use of blood sugar, the more muscle you have, the more easily you can get rid of excess blood sugar when you work out.
Note: Refer to Chapter 10 of Death to Diabetes or the Exercise PDF for more information.
Reduce stress
Try to eliminate the cause of your stress if possible.
If not then take up a hobby, play an instrument or listen to music, learn how to release those bottled up emotions, take up self defense or boxing (if it makes you feel better).
A big factor that influences whether or not you get stressed is the way you think. If you find you are getting stressed often then consider that you may have to "control your thoughts". Try to see things from the other person's point of view and become an observer to your feelings to a situation rather than giving in to instinctive reactions. (People that master this go a long way.)
Also, prevention is the key! So practice deep breathing, take up meditation or yoga and continue exercising to benefit from the endorphins! You might be surprised but prayer really helps as well.
Join a support group or internet forum
This is great especially if you are struggling. If you join a support group in your community or post on an internet forum you will meet other people who may have advice or can help you on your journey to blood sugar level mastery.
Note: Refer to Chapter 13 of Death to Diabetes or the Stress PDF for more information.

3. Medication   Drugs Can Be Dangerous with Long-Term Use!

Taking diabetic drugs is the least preferred method and should be used as a last resort!
Unfortunately, many of us choose drugs as our first option because drugs are convenient, and we mistakenly believe that the drugs give us a free pass such that we can continue to stuff our mouths with the junk food that's killing us.
A typical diabetic starts out taking one drug, usually metformin (Glucophage). Eventually, your diabetes gets worse so your doctor gives you another drug. In addition, your doctor my put you on a high blood pressure drug (i.e. lisinopril) and a high cholesterol drug (i.e. a statin drug such as Lipitor).
In the meantime, your diabetes gets worse because the drugs aren't really doing anything to fight the diabetes.
Then, it's just a matter of time before you begin dealing with the complications of diabetes.
Unfortunately, after a period of years, your doctor eventually puts you on insulin because the pills have lost their effectiveness.
Author's Note: I know this is hard to believe, but, think about it: Have you ever heard of anyone really getting better once they started taking the pills?
Note: For information about blood glucose testing, refer Chapters 11 and 14 of Death to Diabetes, and this web page, or get the Diabetes Management workbook.

Note: Read Chapter 11 of the Death to Diabetes book or get the Power of Blood Glucose Testing PDF to learn how to use testing to control and even reverse your diabetes.

The Weight Loss-Blood Glucose Connection

High blood glucose levels trigger the pancreas to produce excess insulin. Excess insulin triggers the production of more triglycerides and fat cells, and, consequently, more weight gain, leading to obesity.

The excess insulin also inhibits fat metabolism, and, consequently, your body can't burn fat and lose weight the right way. But, when you control your blood glucose with a proper diet, this lowers the production of iinsulin by the pancreas. As a result, the pancreas won't reach burnout and beta cell dysfunction.

Key Point: Diabetic drugs artificially lower your blood glucose level, but your pancreas is still working overtime producing excess insulin. also, the drugs don't address the insulin resistance, cellular inflammation, and damage caused by the diabetes. Consequently, it is imperative to use a proper diet to control your blood glucose levels.

Drug Weaning Tip: When your AVERAGE morning blood glucose readings start to go below the normal range (80-100 mg/dl), then, you should be able to reduce your diabetic drug dosages gradually until you reach ZERO units -- usually within 6-8 weeks, sooner  if you're juicing every day.

Don't focus too much on losing weight -- unless you're losing the right type of weight, i.e. belly fat. If you focus more on having steady BG readings, the weight loss will occur naturally because your body will be producing LESS INSULIN.

p.s. It's the EXCESS INSULIN that makes us fat and keeps us fat. Once you are able to control your insulin levels via better BG control, the easier it will be to lose weight (fat).

Note: For more details about blood glucose control, read Chapters 7, 10, 12, and 14. For more details about proper drug weaning, get the Drug Weaning ebook and theCleanse/Detox ebook.


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